September 28, 2016 07:32 PM

By D John Chelladurai

Modernity has made individual global in one’s potential.  With satellite communication, Airways, Earth Movers we are global in our strength and ability.  In the words of Alfred North Whitehead, the worlds “arise and coalesce” in becoming an individual what s/he is today. Human life has gained ‘vishwaroop’Global living has also brought in a world of challenges.  From self-centeredness to ecological damage we witness in life ethical transgression at every front.  In our craving for the best in the world, we appear to pursue a perilous path of civilization.  Having witnessed the early signs of the onslaught of modern science and industrial revolution across the Europe and its impact on human civilization Gandhi advocated an alternative way of living.  It was a neat blend of physical, intellectual and spiritual life; as Gandhi would say ‘harmony between word, thought and deed’.  J C Kumarappa articulated it as ‘appropriate’ life style. It represents an optimized approach to life, keeping in view the appropriateness of the context such as socio, economic, political, bio physical and ecology.  It means, doing everything in an optimum manner, in a neither-less-nor-more way.  It produces the best result under a given condition, and more harmonious with nature.One can see this optimum principle codetermining all his approaches to life, be it personal or national, physical or spiritual.  For instance, Gandhi proposed technology be appropriate, neither be too primitive to be of any use, nor be too sophisticated to the point of overpowering the very user.  He stated sewing machine as one such appropriate machine.  It liberates the individual from the toils of hand stitching and does not produce in surplus to the point of creating unemployment, consumes no electricity and pollutes nothing. 

Employment is a quantifiable resource within an economy.  Mass production allows few to take more than average of the global share, leaving a large section with less than average, creating huge ‘opportunity gap’ called unemployment.  He proposed decentralized village industries in place of global manufacturing conglomerates, in order to optimize the production possibility with the employment requirement.  He proposed what J C Kumarappa put it as ‘economy of permanence’. Bread labour on land with appropriate tool is the life worth living, Gandhi echoed the idea of Ruskin.  It renders justice to the economy and ecology at the same time.   Poverty and wealth are two extremes. The uniqueness of Gandhi’s optimized approach was that while working on the removal of poverty (one of his 18 constructive programmes) he was equally insisting upon ‘voluntary poverty’ among those having surplus. The structural arrangement Gandhi proposed for voluntary poverty was ‘Trusteeship’. He said to Jamnalal Bajaj to ‘be the trustee of your wealth and put it to the use of the poor millions.’  Talking clue from Gandhi’s nonviolent appropriate economic ideas, the British economist E F Schumacher wrote “Small is Beautiful: A study of Economics as if People Mattered”. And the club of Rome an association of Nobel laureates brought out the report ‘Limits to Growth’ out of the study based on ‘computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with finite resources’. They all endorsed what Gandhi said about self restraint appropriate living. ‘Ecological Debt Day’ is a day that marks the point in each calendar year where human consumption of natural resources exceeds the earth’s ability to replace those resources that year.  At a sustainable rate of consumption, Ecological Debt Day would fall at the end of each calendar year. As of now, humans devour in 225 days the earth’s provisions that is meant for 365 days.  As humanity finishes off the earth’s annual supply by every Aug 13th, what Gandhi said is more prophetic: ‘there is enough for every human’s need but not everyone’s greed’; ‘consuming more than what we actually require amounts to stealing’, a violence against nature. May be ‘fulfillment of needs’ and not the ‘pursuit of greed’ would be the way to delay the ‘Ecological debt day’ by few notch.The concept of village republic (gram rajya) Gandhi proposed was an optimized society.  Individual requires social association (cooperation and mutual aid) though s/he has serious limitation to the extent it can be stretched.  A healthy society would be one in which individual can reach out personally to fellow beings.  He visualized a social order akin to Oceanic Circle, with individual at the centre, encircled by family, village, district, state, nation and the world one after the other. Global living brought diverse humans to co-exist.  People of different religions, ethnic and cultural orientation have come to live in every locality. Information technology has removed the geo distance anyway.  Between individual’s religio-cultural affiliation and the social diversity, we need to adopt a mean point of behavior to be compatible. One of Gandhi’s eleven vratas ‘Sarva Dharma sambhava’ explains this essential virtue especially for global humans.  It is, appreciating plurality while being rooted to one’s faith.   When E Stanley Jones an American Methodist priest asked Gandhi, Christ says ‘love thy neighbour’, what better message of nonviolence could you give?  Gandhi responded saying ‘I have no enemy’.   The ‘wrong and wrong doer are not one’. I am against the ‘wrong’, the wrong doer is my person, he stated.  More than loving one’s enemy, overcoming the habit of seeing an ‘enemy’ in others, is important.

 In the spectrum of human behavior violence and nonviolence constitute two ends; absolute violence being one extreme and puritan nonviolence being the other.  Though a proponent of nonviolence, Gandhi did not go for the extreme expression, but stuck to what are practical. Thus, he was reconciled to certain inevitable commission of violence, such as ‘driving away animals that spoils cultivation’. Gandhi employed his optimum approach to health and sanitation too. Today, as World Health Organization declared, ‘obesity’ is a global epidemic and a source of all life style hazards.  Gandhi argues, “A man with extraordinary physic is not necessarily healthy. He has merely developed his musculature, possibly at the expense of something else” Gandhi says.  In his book Key to health he proposed a balanced life of just sufficiently nutritious food, active physical life, good sleep and healthy thinking.  The eco-friendly toilet he designed was one of the best of his time and it was called ‘Wardha Latrine Model’.Earth is an inheritance of all the life on earth and of all the time to come.  In our spree for a grand life, if we reduce it to a usedup mass of earth, probably we are doing a grave injustice against nature.  Gandhi’s Nonviolent way of life with its appropriate tools, decentralized social order with an economy of permanence that enable individual to be ecologically symbiotic, sounds more pertinent a learning for us today.   

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